Suggested Reading for Chapter One: Problems

  • M.Garey and D.Johnson. Computers and Intractability. A Guide to the Theory of
    NP-Completeness. Freemann, San Francisco, 1979.
    A classic book explaining the concepts of NP-Completeness and problem difficulty.


  • C.M. Papadimitriou.Computational Complexity. Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts, 1994
  • C.M. Papadimitriou and K.Steiglitz. Combinatorial Optimization: Algorithms and Complexity.  Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1982.
    Two more good books describing the theory of what makes problems hard.


  • F. Neumann and C.~Witt. Bioinspired Computation in Combinatorial Optimization: Algorithms and Their Computational Complexity. Springer, Natural Computing Series, 2010.
    Relates bio-inspired algorithms such as evolutionary algorithms to computational complexity

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The on-line accompaniment to the book Introduction to Evolutionary Computing