- T. Bäck.
*Evolutionary Algorithms in Theory and Practice*. Oxford University Press, New York, 1996
- T. Bäck, H.-P. Schwefel.
*An overview of Evolutionary Algorithms for parameter optimisation. *Evolutionary Computation, 1:1 pp. 1–23, 1993. **One of the first papers to really unify historically isolated strands of EA research within a common framework.**
- A.E. Eiben.
*Evolutionary computing: the most powerful problem solver in the universe? * Dutch Mathematical Archive (Nederlands Archief voor Wiskunde), 5/3:2 pp. 126–131, 2002

Available at http://www.cs.vu.nl/~gusz/papers/ec-intro-naw.pdf
- D.B. Fogel.
*Evolutionary Computation*. IEEE Press, 1995
- M.S. Hillier, F.S. Hillier.
*Conventional optimization techniques*.

Chapter 1, pp. 3–25 in Sarker et al., Eds. * Evolutionary Optimization*, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston. 2002. **Provides a background on other methods to place EC in context**
- X.~Yao.
*Evolutionary computation: A gentle introduction*. Chapter 2, pp.~27–53 in Sarker et al., Eds. *Evolutionary Optimization*, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston. 2002.

## The on-line accompaniment to the book Introduction to Evolutionary Computing