- Specify the eight-queens problem as a CSP.
- Is it true that solving a COP with an EA always implies indirect constraint handling?
- Is it true that solving a CSP with an EA never involves direct constraint handling?
- Design an EA for solving a 3-SAT problem. In a propositional

satisfiability problem (SAT) a propositional formula is given,

and a truth assignment for its variables is sought that makes

the formula true. Without loss of generality it can be assumed

that the given formula is in *conjunctive normal form*

(CNF), i.e., it is a conjunction of clauses where a clause is a

disjunction of literals. In the 3-SAT version of this problem it

is also assumed that the clauses consist of exactly three

literals. In the common notation, a formula has *l* clauses

(*L_1*, \dots, *L_l*) and *n* variables (*v*_{1}, …, *v*_{n}).

## The on-line accompaniment to the book Introduction to Evolutionary Computing